Saturday, July 25, 2020

Common Causes of Caregiver Stress

Common Causes of Caregiver Stress Stress Management Situational Stress Print Common Causes of Caregiver Stress By Elizabeth Scott, MS twitter Elizabeth Scott, MS, is a wellness coach specializing in stress management and quality of life, and the author of 8 Keys to Stress Management. Learn about our editorial policy Elizabeth Scott, MS Updated on January 29, 2020 How Stress Impacts Your Health Overview Signs of Burnout Stress and Weight Gain Benefits of Exercise Stress Reduction Tips Self-Care Practices Mindful Living Creative RM / Tomas Rodriguez / Getty Images If you’ve been taking care of a chronically ill spouse or elderly parent, you may be feeling the effects of caregiver stress. If you’re feeling frustrated or overwhelmed  or are experiencing increased stress symptoms, you’re not alone. Providing this type of care can place a great deal of pressure on a person, and caregivers are often surprised by the amount of stress they feel. Here are just some of the pressures that many caregivers face. Fear or Uncertainty If you’re in the position of caring for someone with cancer or another serious disease, you’re probably also dealing with concerns for your loved one’s future. If you’re caring for a child with special needs, there may be uncertainty as to how to proceed. Being in the position of being a caregiver usually carries some heavy responsibility and sometimes scary situations. Shift in Roles If you’re caring for an elderly parent, it can be difficult to see someone who’s traditionally been in the role of caring for you to be now in need of help, often for basic activities like getting dressed or driving. When caring for an ill spouse, roles are often affected as well. This can take a toll on all parties involved. As a caregiver, it might be difficult to see your loved one in such a vulnerable position, and it’s often hard for those needing the care to be feeling so helpless. Financial Pressure As doctor bills and other treatment, fees accrue, and as less energy is left for work, caregivers often find themselves facing financial pressures as well. Isolation When dealing with the needs of someone who requires constant care, a caregiver can feel isolated from the rest of the world. Whether you’re in a position where it’s unsafe to leave your loved one alone, or even if they just get lonely when you leave, you may find yourself much more tied to the house than before, which can make it more difficult for you to get exercise, connect with others, and do the things that help you take stress off. Little Time Alone While caregivers may feel isolated from others, it’s also common to have very little time alone. The need for solitude is very real for most people, and the stress of getting little time alone can feel confusing for someone who also feels isolated, but both feelings can coexist with caregivers, causing their stress to multiply. Demands of Constant Care Many caregivers find themselves giving round-the-clock care, or spending virtually every free moment attending to the needs of their loved one. Others find that their responsibilities are less constant, but never know if they’ll be needed at one particular moment or the next, so they feel like they need to be constantly available. The feeling of being always on duty can take a heavy toll on a caregiver. Guilt and Burn-Out Sometimes the responsibility and feelings of isolation can be overwhelming, and caregivers feel burned-out. Sometimes feelings of guilt accompany such feelings, as though they’re a sign of disloyalty. There may also be guilt if a caregiver feels theyre not making their loved one as comfortable as they could be, even if theres really nothing else that can possibly be done.  Feelings of frustration are understandable, but guilt is still common. These are just a few of the stressors that caregivers commonly feel, and many people may feel that their stress levels are excessive and that they must not be handling things as well as they should. You are facing significant pressures, and stress is a natural reaction. Especially if you’ve been in a caregiver role for quite a while or face a great deal of responsibility as a caregiver, and it’s important to find an outlet for your stress. While it may be difficult to find the time, energy and resources to take care of yourself, it’s important to make self-care a priority. You will need to learn about  stress relief and caregivers  and tips on how to  manage stress  to  avoid caregiver burnout.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Eating Disorders Eating Behavior And Weight Regulation

Eating disorders feature serious disturbances in eating behavior and weight regulation. Associated with a wide range of adverse psychological, physical, and social consequences; eating disorders include severe distress or concern about body weight and shape. Eating disorders are more than simply watching your weight or dieting, they include characteristics such as skipping meals, excessive exercise and overeating. Eating disorders are serious emotional and physical issues with life-threatening consequences. Three of the most common eating disorders are: anorexia nervosa, binge eating and bulimia nervosa. Research has shown that one in every five women struggle with an eating disorder and 50% of girls use unhealthy weight control behaviors. Anorexia nervosa is categorized by abnormally low body weight, intense fear or gaining weight, and a distorted perception of body weight. Not entirely about food, anorexia nervosa is an unhealthy way to cope with emotional problems. Physical signs and symptoms are related to starvation; extreme weight loss, fatigue, severe dehydration, absence of menstruation, dehydration, yellow skin. Emotional and behavioral symptoms include restricting food intake, excessive exercise, self-induced vomiting with the use of laxatives, suicidal, flat mood, social withdrawal and an intense fear of gaining weight. Causes of anorexia nervosa include peer pressure, society, OCD tendencies, and media. Some complications of anorexia nervosa are heartShow MoreRelatedThe Three Main Types Of Eating Disorders1305 Words   |  6 PagesEating Disorders The three main types of eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating, are complex pschyatriac disorders. The classification and diagnosis of each disorder is challenging because diagnostic symptoms and behaviours overlap. These disorders consist of various biological, psychological and sociological factors. They frequently coexist with other illnesses such as depression, substance abuse, or anxiety disorders. (ANAD) Eating disorders are commonly associatedRead MorePeer Pressure At The Study1489 Words   |  6 PagesAnother study identified prospective links between peer pressure at the study outset, and weight (girls) and muscle concerns (boys) one year later(Helfert and Warschburger, 2011). It was found that adolescents’ perceived pressure to be thin and friends’ reports of the pressure to be thin both predicted concurrent increases in disordered eating. Along with results from a wide range of studies, mounting evidence implies that adolescents’ experiences of a strongly appearance focused peer environmentRead MoreWhat Are Eating Disorders?1445 Words   |  6 PagesWhat are eating disorders? The eating disorders anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating, and their variants, all feature serious disturbances in eating behavior and weight regulation (Eating Disorders: About More Than Food, 2014). Many eating disorders are associated with different types of psychological, physical, and social consequences. An individual with an eating disorder may start out with a simple diet or cutting back on their intake of food, but at some point, there is an urgeRead MoreEating Disorders : An Eating Disorder1184 Words   |  5 Pagesas an eating disord er. Weir (2016) goes on to explain the origins behind eating disorders in individuals. This topic is important because, in the United States, many women and men suffer from a clinically significant eating disorder at some point in their life. It is important to know the influences that cause an individual to experience an eating disorder. Genetically, or environmentally, or both genetically and environmentally. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder are eatingRead MoreAnorexia has many negative effects as well. According to the University of Maryland Medical Centers1700 Words   |  7 PagesAnorexia has many negative effects as well. According to the University of Maryland Medical Centers article Eating Disorders, â€Å"Anorexia nervosa can increase the risk for serious health problems such as: hormonal changes including reproductive, thyroid, stress, and growth hormones, heart problems such as abnormal heart rhythm, electrolyte imbalance, fertility problems, bone density loss, anemia, and neurological problems.† Anorexia can severely affect a person internally. The continuous lack of nutrientsRead MoreEssay Eating Disorders in Adolescents1302 Words   |  6 PagesEating Disorders in Adolescents The eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are complex psychosomatic illnesses. Underlying biological diatheses related to the regulation of mood, hunger, satiety, weight control, and metabolism, combined with psychological and sociocultural vulnerabilities, place an individual at risk for developing an eating disorder (Kaplan and Garfinkel, 1993). The American Anorexia Nervosa Association defines anorexia as a ‘serious illness ofRead MoreEating Disorders : Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia, And Binge Eating1453 Words   |  6 PagesIn the United States of America 20 million women, and 10 million men suffer from a clinically significant eating disorder at some time in their life. There are three types of eating disorders, Anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and binge eating. Eating disorders can be life-threatening conditions that can affect a person’s physical health, and emotional. Something that serious has people wondering what exactly is causing these people to risk their health on it? One possibility would be social influencesRead MoreArgumentative Essay On Eating Disorders1016 Words   |  5 Pagesclinically significant eating disorder at some time in their life (â€Å"Get The Facts on Eating Disorders,† NEDA). This is in the United States alone. Imagine how many people are affected by eating disorders in the world. Even Though there is a plethora of people with eating disorders, many people don’t speak out and if they ever do it may be too late. Eating disorders can kill you and affect other factors of your health so it is important to find help. Although eating disorders are crucial, scientistsRead MoreEating Disorders : Anorexia Nervosa889 Words   |  4 PagesANAD Eating Disorder Statistics about thirty million people in America of all ages and genders suffer from one of the three main eating disorders. Many people suffer from more than one of the eating disorders. Only 1 in 10 individuals receive the treatment that is needed to recover(ANDA) . Often eating disorders are known to be triggered by outside factors in their life, but studies show that it is more likely to be a part of their genetics. According to Webster the definition of an â€Å"Eating Disorder†Read MoreObesity And Weight Loss And Obesity1673 Words   |  7 PagesObesity Obesity and weight loss is an issue that many men and women deal with on a daily basis. According to the Mayo Clinic obesity is defined as a complex disorder involving an excessive amount of body fat (Mayo, 1998-2016). Obesity in men, women, and children increases the risk of diseases and health problems, such as heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure. Early prevention during childhood deceases the chances of the individual being obese during adulthood. Early prevention includes

Friday, May 8, 2020

Gender And Gender, Hormones, And Physiology - 1211 Words

Gender Gender and sex are two different categories that people in this generation often get confused of. Sex is how men and women were physically born to be. Gender refers to the performance of men and women based on the norms given by the society. Without the concept of â€Å"men† and â€Å"women† or â€Å"masculinity† and â€Å"femininity,† a man could be seen wearing a dress without being stared at. As gender exists, society is divided up into categories where inequality is an inevitable issue. In order to help the readers to thoroughly understand the issue, it is necessary to acknowledge what â€Å"sex† is composed of and what â€Å"gender† is made of. In the article â€Å"Doing Gender†, Candace West and John Zimmerman clarify that â€Å"sex is ascribed by biology: anatomy, hormones, and physiology† (175). At the same time, they also argue that â€Å"gender is an achieved status which is constructed through psychological, cultural, and social means† (175). Thus, it can be said that sex is the difference of the body’s organs and reproductive system that biologically characterize one body from another. Meanwhile, gender helps people differentiate â€Å"men† and â€Å"women† by solely looking at based on their clothes, their actions, their hobbies, and relationships that society push one to form â€Å"his† or â€Å"her† self-identity. There are always two sections in the shopping stores, one for male and an other for female. Therefore, a person would typically look at those tags and decide where to go. A male can be seen picking clothesShow MoreRelatedMasculinity And Masculinity : A Patriarchal Society1516 Words   |  7 Pageshypothetically equal. The gender-role identity is the extent of masculine or feminine self-appreciation of an individual (McNeill Petersen, 1985, cited in Fromme Eccles, 1996). Masculinity and femininity described by Deaux (1984) as personal characteristics, activities, behaviours, dispositions, appearances which are acceptable for males or females and established by sociocultural factors, while sex refers only to the physiological dissimilarities. Per biological supposition, gender is fully defined byRead MoreNature Nurture Debate in Gender Development Essay839 Words   |  4 Pagesare either gender is innate or it has been learnt. These two different perspectives represent a famous debate that occurs throughout psychology: the nature-nurture debate. The nature side of the debate states that gender is biological. This would explain the strong relationship between the person’s sex and their gender. The theory is that because each sex shares the same physiology and anatomy, they have many psychological traits in common too. In the same way that genetics and hormones determineRead MoreTransgender And Transsexual Rights Campaign973 Words   |  4 Pagestranssexual rights campaigns champion the rights of individuals to identify as a gender opposite to, or (sometimes, but not always) more broadly â€Å"other than,† that which they were assigned at birth. Some movements for intersex and trans rights even reject assignment at birth altogether as inadequate for classifying their sex or their future gender identity. Both camps raise questions challenging the interconnectedness of gender and biological sex, but some of the ways in which trans and intersex individualsRead MoreSignificance Of Prostate Cancer, Anatomy And Physio logy Systems1127 Words   |  5 PagesThe purpose of this paper is to discuss the significance of Prostate cancer, anatomy and physiology systems affected by Prostate cancer, the disease pathology, and how the disease is being controlled. Within the significance of Prostate cancer there is incidence rate and prevalence of the disease, there are national trends that are by age, gender, race, and geographic region. In the anatomy and physiology systems that are affected by Prostate cancer, there is which bodily system that the diseaseRead MoreA Last Look At The Battle Of The Sexes1422 Words   |  6 Pagessocial constructs and the misleading messages they give us about gender roles was also beautifully illustrated in Pink Brain Blue Brain by Lise Eliot and Woman: An Intimate Geography, by Nathalie Angier. The Trouble with Testosterone by Robert Sapolsky and The Red Queen by Matt Ridley did not influence my thinking very much, however. This is because although Sapolsky’s discu ssion of the role and effect of hormones in human physiology was very interesting, ultimately it is only tangentially relatedRead MoreHow Do Growth And Maturation Affect Vo2max?1627 Words   |  7 Pagesdesign and velocity depending on the individual but there are some similarities and differences in these processes dependent on gender, which will be discussed in the next part of the essay. Effects of growth on VO2max Growth has a considerable effect on VO2max as it increases in correlation to body mass (Cooper et al., 1984). When comparing absolute VO2max results in both genders during the stages of growth a change can be seen (McArdle, Katch, Katch, 2014): â€Å"Absolute values of VO2max for boys andRead MoreA Critical Textual Analysis : Feminine Identity And The Essentialistic Ideas Of The Late Nineteenth Century Between Men And1286 Words   |  6 Pagesdoctrine. â€Å"Nature† has been the historical burden women have faced. It is not the only such burden, but it has been the largest and the heaviest. Psychological and social implications of essentialist beliefs create gender segregation, inequality, and is often used to excuse gender-based biases in society. These types of ideas are often used as a justification for misogynistic and essentialistic systems in society. Kaplan and Rogers examine how determinism takes essentialism a bit further in theRead MoreSecretary Of Defense Ashton Carter1742 Words   |  7 Pagesmembers’ abilities to serve are hindered by a â€Å"medical condition or treatment related to their gender identity,† they will be treated (May). This new policy requires the government to pay for expensive treatments for all transgender Americans. As a result, the number of deployable troops is decreased. The policy also encourages the large possibility of special treatment, unfair policy exemptions, and unequal gender advantages. 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Evolutionary psychologistsRead MoreCommentary on Lorber ´s Night to His Day†: The Social Construction of Gender776 Words   |  4 PagesDay†: The Social Construction of Gender, â€Å"most people find it hard to believe that gender is constantly created and re-created out of human interaction, out of social life, and is the texture and order of that social life† (Lorber 1). This article was very intriguing because I thought of my gender as my sex but they are not the same. Lorber has tried to prove that gender has a different meaning that what is usually perceived of through ordinary connotation. Gender is the â€Å"role† we are given, or

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Organizational Change the Effect on Employee Morale and Motivation Free Essays

string(56) " where downsizing is being discussed or is in progress\." Abstract News of job losses (whether we label them as downsizing, layoffs, or restructuring) reaches us daily. And sometimes the reality hits close to home – loss of a job of a family member, a close friend, a valued coworker or someone you supervise. According to McKinley, Sanchez and Schick (1995), â€Å"This process of deliberate personnel reduction has been justified as a cost-cutting measure and as an incentive to increase productivity. We will write a custom essay sample on Organizational Change: the Effect on Employee Morale and Motivation or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, evidence has shown that downsizing negatively affects employee morale and productivity. While people who lose their jobs can be strongly impacted by loss of financial security, fear for the future, and even decreased self-esteem, it’s important to recognize that people who survive job cuts face their own set of negative consequences. This group of â€Å"survivors† may experience stress as well as feelings of anxiety or depression. This paper examines these issues by reviewing the numerous organizational and leadership changes that have taken place at WellPoint, Inc. within the last two years. In addition, a small sample of WellPoint associates was surveyed to assess the effects that the organizational restructuring and leadership changes have had on employee morale over the last two years. The results of that survey are presented in this paper. Introduction What single change causes the most consternation in the work place? The announcement of job cutbacks. With all the recent staff reduction announcements, this news is all too familiar. With it comes the immediate negative effect on employee morale, both for the laid-off employees and the remaining staff. Emotional turmoil resulting from an event such as organizational change can leave lasting scars on individuals and organizations. Disruption of normal operation can be short-lived if normal feelings of grief, loss, fear, and even guilt and anger are allowed to be expressed when the organizational change is being announced and/or is occurring. However, if these feelings are not allowed expression, they may be manifested later in more serious and damaging forms such as increased illness; absenteeism and turnover; decreased productivity and morale; and isruption in communication among employees and between employees and managers (Abbasi and Hollman, 1998). This can lead to massive chaos and interruption in the smooth flow of work activities? Abbasi and Hollman. (1998) emphasize the following, â€Å"There has been a clear change in corporate philosophy among American firms in the past two decades. Firms which once perceived employees as long-term assets to be nurtured, developed, engage d, and empowered by management, now see them as commodities. Workers are short-term expendable costs to be jettisoned at a moment’s notice when downsizing. The steady drumbeat of layoffs in recent years has made many workers feel that the days of career security are gone for good, no matter how dedicated they may be. † K. Mishra, Spreitzer and A. MIshra (1998) support this idea with the following, â€Å"Downsizing has become almost a way of life for U. S. companies. In fact, a first round of downsizing is generally followed by a second round a short time later. Sixty-seven percent of firms that cut jobs in a given year do so again the following year. † The outcome of these changes and the resulting impact on employees’ morale is discussed. This paper reviews literature that addresses corporate downsizing, what it is and why it is important. The literature review includes books and various articles. To assess the effect that these changes have had on employee morale, a 15-question survey was given to a small sample of WellPoint associates to measure their current feelings that impact their self-confidence. The results of the survey are offered, along with an analysis of the data, including conclusions. Literature Review Current business literature supports the idea that although managers implement downsizing to enhance profitability and productivity, research reveals that downsizing does not always result in higher earnings, improved productivity and better customer service and that workforce reductions often adversely affect employee attitude and morale. Abbasi and Hollman (1990) point out that throughout the early 1990s, the newspapers and airwaves were filled with stories of major American companies announcing layoffs of several thousand additional employees. Companies large and small were cutting jobs at a rate never seen before in American economic history. The trend toward downsizing is so pervasive, and its impact so profound, that it literally shapes the business strategy of many companies. In a study by Watson Wyatt Worldwide, it was reported that fewer than half of the companies it surveyed after the 1990 recession met profit goals after downsizing. Furthermore, study after study has challenged and often contradicted the long-term benefit of staffing cutbacks as a means to return to profitability. However, according to Carol W. Garnant, â€Å"The number one issue that companies immediately face when downsizing is employee morale. † She adds that â€Å"prompt resolution of staffing and organizational issues is essential to the first step in change. The longer the process takes, the more painful it becomes, and the greater the chance of losing key employees in the disruptive environment. † Abbasi and Hollman (1990) contend that today’s organizations no longer provide workers with a secure and stable workplace. It’s an unstable environment where workers work for managers who often find their compassion and concern for workers in sharp conflict with the pressures of relentless competition and investor expectations. Over the years, many employees stayed in their organization because the believed it was a good place to work. They believed in the organization, were loyal to it, and had expectations of periodic pay increases and regular opportunities for advancement. Their interests were aligned with those of management. The old paradigm is now gone. The myth that institutions will take care of their employees has been shattered. Lately, each round of organizational restructuring results in more bodies on the corporate scrap heap. Abbasi and Hollman (1990) agree that one of the biggest problems arising from workforce reduction concerns the devastating impact on employee morale and attitudes. A sense of foreboding usually pervades the workplace where downsizing is being discussed or is in progress. You read "Organizational Change: the Effect on Employee Morale and Motivation" in category "Papers" Employees often feel that their long years of work and dedication to the company are not reciprocated. They may perceive themselves as victims of some abstract management exercise which is outside their control and beyond their capacity to comprehend. Cutting staff doesn’t always work; in fact, it frequently has the opposite effect. The American Management Association surveyed 700 companies that had downsized between 1989 and 1994. Employee morale plummeted in 83% of the companies. Employees who survive the unsettling and disruptive effect of downsizing also tend to experience a disproportionate amount of problems. They feel that management has put them at the very bottom of its priority list. According to Abbasi and Hollman, they feel betrayed, suffer ebbing morale, become dispirited and self-absorbed, submit a larger number of stress disability claims, become obsessed with layoffs and internal politics, and exhibit various behavioral problems. Many workers are forced to struggle with heavier workloads and become overburdened to the point of burnout. Others experience heightened anxiety as they wonder who will be next to go and if they will be able to make it safely to retirement before being forced out in a subsequent downsizing. After all, downsizing seems to beget more downsizing. Three out of four firms that downsize in one year plan to do it again in the next year. With some of the surviving employees having trouble getting to work on time and spending their day just going through the motions, no longer enjoying what they do, companies are finding that these employees are suffering from workplace depression. Corporate psychologists coined this phrase to characterize the feelings of suppressed anger and anxiety that are widespread in today’s workplace. According to Marjorie Whigham-Desair (1993), â€Å"The symptoms run form a general lack of enthusiasm and low productivity to high absenteeism coupled with a low rate of voluntary employee turnover. â€Å" This results in delays in projected deadlines and lackluster employees. Psychologists agree that the recent wave of corporate layoffs has taken its psychological toll on the nation’s workforce. When companies eliminate large numbers of workers, those who remain experience anxiety, says Therman Evans (1993), MD. , president and CEO of Whole Life Associates, a stress-management firm based in Elkins Park, PA. This leads to higher workers’ compensation claims and extremely paranoid employees. â€Å"As companies downsize, responsibilities shift to those who remain, this can result in frustration, irritability, fatigue and ultimately burnout, adds Michael D. Cox (1993), Ph. D a psychologist at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston. As authors and human resource consultants Kenneth N. Wexley and Stanley B. Silverman (1993) point out in their book, Working Scared: Achieving Success in Trying Times, organizations that downsize violate two fundamental factors that motivate workers; the need for security and the desire for justice. Not only do surviving employees distrust the company, they also become more cautious. As a result, innovation and creativity are stifled. People worry about the unknown and need time to prepare for it, says Cox. â€Å"They don’t like to be given bad news abruptly; they don’t want to feel out of control. † Those managers who must implement layoffs suffer too. Two researchers found that managers often become abrasive, narcissistic, withdrawn, alienated, apathetic or depressed. Mishra et al. 1998) found, â€Å"the irony is that downsizing companies are unwittingly destroying the very qualities they need for competitive advantage, namely their employees’ trust and empowerment. At the same time they are downsizing, many companies are advocating the implementation of high-involvement work systems and total quality management strategies. Yet employee trust and empowerment, often shattered in the process of downsizing, are the engines that make these initiatives work,† resulting in a decrease in employee motivation and increase employee absenteeism. Mishra et al. 1998) call attention to the fact that â€Å"trust between managers and employees is critical for effective work relationships, especially under conditions of high uncertainty and conflict. † Trust is defined as an individual’s willingness to be vulnerable to another based on the belief that the other party is competent, open, reliable, and concerned about the individual’s own interests. Employee trust and empowerment decline considerably during downsizing. Survivors may no longer trust top management’s openness because communication is not credible or information is withheld. Survivors may not believe that management cares about employees’ needs if they see that their welfare has been sacrificed for top managers’ personal gain. Survivors’ sense of empowerment may suffer and their competency also may be threatened as they take on the jobs of laid-off coworkers, which often require different skills. Their sense of personal control may suffer because of unclear or constantly changing job responsibilities or frequent layoffs that leave them wondering if they are next. Not surprisingly, their willingness to take risks may decline, and they may become more resistant to change (Mishra et al. 1998). Isabella (1989) suggests, â€Å"Companies that downsize may be unprepared for the strong emotions, lengthy adjustment time, diminished morale, and lower productivity experienced by the survivors of massive restructuring. In fact, companies often have surprisingly little information about the adjustments and assessments of those ultimately respons ible for revitalizing the company. † Isabella (1989) adds, â€Å"The downsizing also can trigger substantial uncertainty and concern for one’s professional and personal future. Feelings of security can be of significant concern because years spent in an organization can create a level of familiarity that is difficult to rebuild elsewhere. † Therefore, it is not uncommon to employees update their resumes and begin seeking employment elsewhere during these stressful times. This certainly has been the case for employees of WellPoint, Inc. Shortly after the Anthem/WellPoint Health Network merger in 2004, when the company became known as WellPoint, Inc. , numerous attempts have been made to reengineer the company and minimize duplication wherever possible. Even after several rounds of layoffs, WellPoint, Inc. once again decided to trim more positions as it faces a still-sluggish economy and uncertainty from potential health-care reforms coming out of Washington. â€Å"As the economic environment changes, WellPoint reviews the size and skills of our work force and makes adjustments as necessary,† WellPoint spokeswoman Kristin Binns said in an email. Job reductions by businesses across the country during the downturn have caused shrinking membership in many of WellPoint’s employer-sponsored health plans. The company said it is looking for ways to operate more efficiently in 2010. Early this year, WellPoint trimmed about 1,500 jobs in a move that included about 600 layoffs (Lee, 2009). This leads to those who are left behind feeling very uncertain about their own job security, wondering if they will survive the next phase of layoffs. Gibbons and Brenowitz (2001) acknowledge, â€Å"Only the luckiest businesses in any industry will survive their entire lifecycles without experiencing the wrath of corporate downsizing. In the aftermath of downsizing, fewer people are left to do the same or increased amount of work. The organization, once designed for and built around a greater number of people, is now left in a state of imbalance. While survivors usually move from denial to acceptance, they often struggle to get there. † They further state,† At a time when they’re feeling the lowest, middle management must perform at their best. Although the company appears to be in a state of chaos, managers must seem calm, confident and in control. It’s their job to begin allocating tasks, confirming work objectives, making sure people stay focused on appropriate tasks, and pulling together a new team. What many companies may not realize is that the design of an organization cannot withstand such turbulence without some degree of consequence. Senior management cannot assume to rebalance the company’s design by moving around a few boxes on the organizational chart. The fact is that organization design goes beyond the company structure. It addresses issues more systemic than the lines, boxes and arrangement of people and functions. It includes such factors as information and reward systems, management and decision making processes; mission, vision and values; business strategy and people (Gibbons and Brenowitz, 2001). In addition to impacting management, downsizing also has a profound effect on those who survive. Some of the most common challenges survivors of downsizing face include: guilt, some remaining employees may feel guilty that they were â€Å"saved† from the job cuts; stress, not only do employees have to cope with the stress of job insecurity, but they also have even more work to do with fewer resources; and anxiety, the anxiety engendered by job cuts doesn’t end with initial layoffs, survivors often live in a state of shock, wondering if the worst is over or still to come (Harris, Rothenberg International, LLC, 2008). In conclusion, as downsizing continues to become an increasingly normal business practice, managers need to find ways to improve their ability to manage the change. This includes motivating traumatized employees and getting operations back on track. It means addressing the drama of the situation, not denying it. Can-do attitudes are badly needed and understandable goals must be spelled out. Yet, nothing promises post-downsizing success like the practice of open, honest communications? Methodology To determine how the organizational changes have affected employee morale, a survey was administered to a small sample of employees. Twenty WellPoint employees were surveyed. About the same number of surveys was given to male and female employees. Eight State Sponsored Business and 12 Shared Services employees participated in the survey for a total sample size of 20. The survey was adapted from the 2008 WellPoint Associate Engagement Survey developed by Kenexa and the WellPoint, Inc. EAP website self-assessment tools. Although the original survey created by Kenexa and those found on the EAP website consisted of a number of additional questions, the questions for this survey has been reduced to 15 questions. Each of the 15 questions was rated according to a five-point Likert scale response, ranging from a numerical score of one, if the respondent strongly disagrees with, to five, if the respondent strongly agrees. A total score of 75 is the maximum possible for the survey. Quantitative results were placed into tables and the mean and standard deviation were calculated for each question. The results were analyzed and interpreted in the Analysis and Conclusion sections of this report. The survey follows. Associate Morale Observation You are invited to participate in this survey to help Pamela Forrest with a research paper for an MBA class project. Your participation is entirely voluntary and your responses will be kept strictly confidential. If you are willing to participate, please answer all of the questions and return this survey to Pamela by Monday, October 12, 2009. To complete this survey: In the space to the right of each statement below, please place a number from 1 to 5 indicating how true the statement is about your experience working at WellPoint, Inc. using the following scale: =Strongly Disagree 2=Disagree 3=Neither Agree nor Disagree 4=Agree 5=Strongly Agree 1. I feel that I am part of a team. _____ 2. I am involved in decisions that affect my work. _____ 3. My job makes good use of my talents and abilities. _____ 4. I feel overwhelmed trying to keep up with my responsibilities or with trying to please everyone. _____ 5. WellPoint provides me with the opportunity for learning and development. _____ 6. I have the training I need to do my job effectively. _____ 7. I receive the coaching and feedback I need to do my job effectively. ____ 8. I feel that I have limited control over the outcome of my job. _____ 9. I am satisfied with my opportunities for career advancement. _____ 10. I am able to manage my work responsibilities in a way that allows me to maintain a healthy balance between work and home. _____ 11. I regularly receive appropriate recognition for my contributions. _____ 12. I am paid fairly for the work I do. _____ 13. I dread going to work, especially on Sunday night. _____ 14. I receive the information and communication I need to do my job effectively. _____ 15. My immediate manager does a good job communicating the reasons behind important changes that are made. _____ Thank you for your time and support for this class project! Questionnaire adapted from the 2008 WellPoint Associate Engagement Survey developed by Kenexa and the WellPoint, Inc. EAP website self-assessment tools. Results A total of 20 surveys were distributed to WellPoint associates. Twenty surveys were completed and returned, for an overall response rate of 100 percent. The average total score for the survey, calculated from all 20 respondents, is 51. 5 out of a possible maximum of 75. This equates to an average total rating of 68 percent. The mean was calculated for each of the 15 rating-scale questions. The mean for the results ranges from a high of 4. 25 to a low of 2. 85. The standard deviation was calculated for each of the 15 rating-scale questions. The results range from a high of 1. 459 to a low of . 7539. The results for each of the 15 rating-scale questions are give n below. Question 1: I feel that I am part of a team. The mean for the total results is 4. 25 and the standard deviation is . 8507. The most frequently occurring response given by all respondents for this question is 5, â€Å"strongly agree. † Question 2: I am involved in decisions that affect my work. The mean for the total results is 3. 6 and the standard deviation is . 9947. The most frequently occurring response given by all respondents for this question is 4, â€Å"agree. † Question 3: My job makes good use of my talents and abilities. The mean for the total results is 3. 45 and the standard deviation is 1. 191. The most frequently occurring response given by all respondents for this question is 4, â€Å"agree. Question 4: I feel overwhelmed trying to keep up with my responsibilities or with trying to please everyone. The mean for the total results is 3. 15 and the standard deviation is 1. 04. The most frequently occurring response given by all respondents for this question is 3, â€Å"neither agree nor disagree. † Question 5: WellPoint provides me with the opportunity for learning and development. The mean for the total results is 3. 4 and the standard deviation is . 9403. The most frequently occurring response given by all respondents for this question is 4, â€Å"agree. † Question 6: I have the training I need to do my job effectively. The mean for the total results is 3. 6 and the standard deviation is . 7539. The most frequently occurring response given by all respondents for this question is 4, â€Å"agree. † Question 7: I receive the coaching and feedback I need to do my job effectively. The mean for the total results is 3. 45 and the standard deviation is . 9445. The most frequently occurring response given by all respondents for this question is 3, â€Å"neither agree nor disagree. † Question 8: I feel that I have limited control over the outcome of my job. The mean for the total results is 3. 35 and the standard deviation is 1. 1367. The most frequently occurring response given by all respondents for this question is 4, â€Å"agree. † Question 9: I am satisfied with my opportunities for career advancement. The mean for the total results is 2. 95 and the standard deviation is 1. 099. The most frequently occurring response given by all respondents for this question was tied between 3, â€Å"neither agree nor disagree† and 4, â€Å"agree. † Question 10: I am able to manage my work responsibilities in a way that allows me to maintain a healthy balance between work and home. The mean for the total results is 3. 4 and the standard deviation is 1. 39. The most frequently occurring response given by all respondents for this question is 4, â€Å"agree. † Question 11: I regularly receive appropriate recognition for my contributions. The mean for the total results is 3. 4 and the standard deviation is 1. 0463. The most frequently occurring response given by all respondents for this question is 4, â€Å"agree. † Question 12: I am paid fairly for the work I do. The mean for the total results is 3. 45 and the standard deviation is 1. 1459. The most frequently occurring response given by all respondents for this question is 4, â€Å"agree. Question 13: I dread going to work, especially on Sunday night. The mean for the total results is 2. 85 and the standard deviation is 1. 4244. The most frequently occurring response given by all respondents for this question was tied between 1, â€Å"strongly disagree† and 3, â€Å"neither agree nor disagree. † Question 14: I receive information and communication I need to do my job effectively. The mean for the total results is 3. 15 and the standard deviation is . 9333. The most frequently occurring response given by all respondents for this question is 4, â€Å"agree. † Question 15: My immediate manager does a good job communicating the reasons behind important changes that are made. The mean for the total results is 3. 8 and the standard deviation is . 7678. The most frequently occurring response given by all respondents for this question is 4, â€Å"agree. † Analysis The overall survey score of 51. 25 percent indicates that the employee morale for WellPoint associates is average. While these scores could be a little higher, they still are quite positive in light of the major organizational changes that recently have taken place across the company. In fact, WellPoint is doing better than one would expect considering all of the organizational changes it has experienced within the last couple of years. The survey question with the highest mean score overall (4. 25 mean) was number one, â€Å"I feel that I am part of a team. † This is largely due to the fact that the majority of associates who took part in this survey, work for a highly creative department whose direct management has fostered monthly team-building activities and encouraged collaboration when completing everyday tasks. The question with the lowest mean score overall (2. 85 mean) was number 13, â€Å"I dread going to work, especially on Sunday night. † Because this question had a negative spin on it, the fact that it received a low mean score actually is a positive indicator. Based on their responses, the majority of associates surveyed enjoy coming to work, even when the week is just getting underway. Consequently, the next lowest mean score overall (2. 95 mean), which actually indicates a considerable amount of discontent is number 9; â€Å"I am satisfied with my opportunities for career advancement. This has been a trouble area for quite some time, due, in large part to the fact that a majority of the associates within our department have realized little or no career advancement within the last few years. To further assess this study’s survey results, questions were evaluated based on the percentages of answers for each question, adding together the percentages for response #4, â⠂¬Å"agree† and response #5, â€Å"strongly agree. † These figures were compared to the sum of the remaining three percentages for response #1, â€Å"strongly disagree,† response #2, â€Å"agree† and response #3, â€Å"neither agree nor disagree. The fact that some of the questions had a negative spin, resulted in reversing the percentages for a more accurate representation. For question 1, â€Å"I feel that I am part of a team,† a total of 85% either agreed or strongly agreed as compared to 15% who either strongly disagreed, disagreed or neither agreed nor disagreed. This shows that the team-building efforts initiated by management have had a positive affect on associates. For question 2, â€Å"I am involved in decisions that affect my work,† a total of 55% either agreed or strongly agreed as compared to 45% who either strongly disagreed, disagreed or neither agreed nor disagreed. This shows that associates feel that they have a say in their daily decision-making tasks. For question 3, â€Å"My job makes good use of my talents and abilities,† 60% either agreed or strongly agreed as compared to 40% who either strongly disagreed, disagreed or neither agreed nor disagreed. This shows that associates feel that they are utilizing their skills in their daily work routine. For question 4, â€Å"I feel overwhelmed trying to keep up with my responsibilities,† 65% either strongly disagreed, disagreed or neither agreed nor disagreed as compared to 35% who either agreed or strongly agreed. This shows that associates feel that their workload is balanced and they are able to accomplish their daily tasks with a limited amount of stress. Question 5, â€Å"WellPoint provides me with the opportunity for learning and development,† primarily was split almost down the middle with 55% either agreeing or strongly agreeing and 45% either strongly disagreeing, disagreeing or neither agreeing nor disagreeing. This reveals the possibility that opportunities for learning and development may not be offered equally to all associates; some associates may be favored to take educational courses over other associates. For question 6, â€Å"I have the training to do my job effectively,† 65% either agreed or strongly agreed as compared to 35% who either strongly disagreed, disagreed or neither agreed nor disagreed. This shows that most associates feel well-equipped to adequately handle their job duties. However question 7, â€Å"I receive coaching and feedback to do my job effectively,† predominantly was split down the middle with 45% either agreeing or strongly agreeing and 55% either strongly disagreeing, disagreeing or neither agreeing nor disagreeing. This shows that management may not be communicating effectively nor providing adequate coaching and feedback on a regular basis. And question 8, â€Å"I feel that I have limited control over the outcome of my job,† was split down the middle, 50/50, which shows that associates feel that external factors may have more direct impact on their job than the direct contributions they make on a daily basis. For question 9, â€Å"I am satisfied with my opportunities for career advancement,† 60% either strongly disagreed, disagreed or neither agreed nor disagreed as compared to 40% who either agreed or strongly agreed. This demonstrates the belief shared by a majority of WellPoint associates, that there is little opportunity for upward mobility with the organization. For question 10, â€Å"I am able to maintain a healthy work-life balance,† 65% either agreed or strongly agreed as compared to 35% who either strongly disagreed, disagreed or neither agreed nor disagreed. This shows that most of the associates feel that they are maintaining an adequate balance between their work responsibilities and their leisure time. And question 11, â€Å"I regularly receive appropriate recognition for my contributions,† was split down the middle, 50/50, which shows that appropriate recognition may not always be given equally to all associates; some associates may be favored over others. For question 12, â€Å"I am paid fairly for the work I do,† 65% either agreed or strongly agreed as compared to 35% who either strongly disagreed, disagreed or neither agreed nor disagreed. This shows that most of the associates feel that they are satisfied with their rate of pay for the work that they do. For question 13, â€Å"I dread going to work, especially on Sunday night,† 65% either strongly disagreed, disagreed or neither agreed nor disagreed as compared to 35% who either agreed or strongly agreed. This shows that associates feel content with their jobs and look forward to coming to work. For question 14, â€Å"I receive the information and communication I need to do my job effectively,† 60% either strongly disagreed, disagreed or neither agreed nor disagreed as compared to 40% who either agreed or strongly agreed. This reveals that WellPoint needs to improve their channels of communication. And finally, for question 15, â€Å"My immediate manager does a good job communicating the reasons behind changes,† 70% either agreed or strongly agreed as compared to 30% who either strongly disagreed, disagreed or neither agreed nor disagreed. This shows that most of the associates feel satisfied with the way their immediate manager is communicating with them. Conclusion Depending on the scope and size of the organizational change and the number of staff affected, consequences can be disruptive. Employees may find even the act of reporting for work very stressful. They may have difficulty sleeping or eating. People respond differently and recover at different rates. For most people, the effects of the event will subside within a few weeks as people adjust to the changes. For others, the symptoms may become worse. However, surprisingly, the results of this study refute most of the literature on this subject. While downsizing is a workplace trend that is here to stay and that undeniably creates anger, stress, fear and even trauma for surviving employees, according to the findings in this survey, this has not proven to be the case for WellPoint associates. This study’s survey results indicate that WellPoint has been reasonably successful to this point. Employee morale and attitudes are at or slightly above national norms, which is rather commendable considering the recurring layoffs that have taken place over the course of the past two years. While the industry trend indicates otherwise, WellPoint associates who have weathered the storm by remaining gainfully employed with the company, increase their engagement while striving to achieve superior performance in their daily work activities. Evidence can be seen in the high survey rankings reported in this paper on questions such as â€Å"I have the training to do my job effectively† and â€Å"I am able to maintain a healthy work-life balance. † Even under the most extreme circumstances of additional impending layoffs, the morale of the surviving associates at WellPoint is surprisingly high. I am inspired by the fact that WellPoint associates have managed to hold onto employee morale in spite of some tough economic conditions. Some of the survey results that support this include the high survey rankings reported in this paper on questions such as â€Å"Associates feel that they are part of a team† and â€Å"My job makes good use of my talents and abilities. † However, the common rationale that downsizing is necessary to financial health and that greater efficiency always follows job cuts is questionable. Therefore, WellPoint also must give attention to alternatives that may cause less turmoil and still achieve the desired economic results. There are numerous alternatives to downsizing that are far less demoralizing to employees. Some of these alternatives include gearing down to a four-day work week or using job-sharing techniques, where employees lose pay but keep their job. Other alternatives include pay reductions, taking vacations without pay, having fewer paid holidays, retraining or redeploying workers, or providing early retirement buyouts for workers past a certain age. Finally, some other ideas include imposing wage and hiring freezes, restricting the amount of overtime available to employees or cutting back on executive perks. The negative effects of downsizing can be eased by acknowledging the situation, asking questions and communicating honestly, listening to others and exploring new ideas and ways of doing things. Taking an active, positive role in reducing the trauma of downsizing can enhance WellPoint’s chances of being part of a creative, profitable company and enhance its professional growth and opportunity for the future. In addition, if there don’t seem to be any alternatives to layoffs, WellPoint can make the layoffs seem less arbitrary and cruel by keeping the lines of communication open and explaining with dignity the strategy behind them. In the opinion of this author, WellPoint needs to turn its attention to cultivating the staff that is ultimately responsible for revitalizing the company by providing more opportunity for learning and development and career advancement as well as expanding the lines of communication. Questions in the survey show that WellPoint is weak in these two key areas. Evidence can be seen in the low survey rankings reported in this paper on questions such as â€Å"I am satisfied with my opportunities for career advancement,† and â€Å"I receive the information and communication I need to do my job effectively. Therefore, providing more opportunities for associates and improving the flow of communication, not only would be a worthwhile investment for the company, but also a vehicle for providing a worthwhile work environment for the associates. This in turn would result in a direct benefit to the organization by increasing associate engagement and providing the necessary tools for assoc iates to do their job more effectively. This, in turn, would make the most of the human capital available in the 41,000 WellPoint associates. Appendix A | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |SSB Survey Results | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Associate Morale Monitor | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Results for WellPoint, Inc. Associates 10. 9. 09 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Question | |Respondent # |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 |6 |7 |8 |9 |10 |11 |12 |13 |14 |15 |16 |17 |18 |19 |20 |Avg. |SD |Mode | |1. Part of a team | | |4 |3 |4 |4 |5 |4 |4 |5 |5 |5 |4 |4 |4 |5 |5 |3 |5 |5 |2 |5 |4. 5 |0. 85 |5 | |2. Involved in decisions affecting work | |2 |3 |3 |3 |4 |3 |5 |5 |4 |4 |4 |4 |3 |4 |5 |3 |4 |2 |2 |5 |3. 6 |0. 97 |4 | |3. Job makes good use of talents abilities | |1 |1 |4 |2 |3 |3 |5 |4 |4 |4 |3 |4 |4 |5 |5 |2 |4 |3 |4 |4 |3. 45 |1. 19 |4 | |4. Feel overwhelmed trying to keep up | |2 |4 |2 |5 |4 |4 |1 |3 |3 |3 |3 |4 |3 |3 |2 |2 |4 |3 |5 |3 |3. 15 |1. 04 |3 | |5. WellPoint provides opportunity for develop . | |4 |1 |3 |2 |4 |4 |4 |5 |4 |3 |3 |2 |3 |4 |4 |3 |4 |3 |4 |4 |3. 4 |0. 94 |4 | |6. Have training to do job effectively | |3 |4 |3 |4 |2 |2 |4 |3 |4 |4 |4 |4 |4 |4 |5 |4 |4 |3 |3 |4 |3. 6 |0. 75 |4 | |7. Receive coaching and feedback | |3 |3 |3 |3 |2 |2 |4 |3 |4 |4 |3 |2 |3 |5 |5 |4 |4 |3 |4 |5 |3. 45 |0. 94 |3 | |8. Limited control over job outcome | |4 |5 |4 |4 |2 |4 |4 |3 |2 |3 |5 |1 |3 |3 |2 |4 |3 |4 |5 |2 |3. 35 |1. 14 |4 | |9. Satisfied with career advancement opportunity | |2 |1 |3 |1 |2 |4 |3 |3 |4 |4 |2 |2 |3 |4 |5 |2 |3 |3 |4 |4 |2. 95 |1. 1 |3 | |10. Healthy work-life balance | | |4 |4 |4 |3 |2 |1 |5 |4 |4 |4 |4 |1 |4 |4 |5 |4 |2 |5 |1 |3 |3. 4 |1. 1 |4 | |11. Regular recognition for contributions | |3 |2 |4 |2 |2 |2 |5 |3 |4 |4 |3 |2 |4 |5 |5 |3 |4 |3 |4 |4 |3. 4 |1. 05 |4 | |12. Paid fairly for work done | | |4 |1 |4 |4 |2 |5 |5 |3 |4 |3 |3 |1 |4 |4 |4 |4 |2 |4 |4 |4 |3. 45 |1. 15 |4 | |13. Dread going to work | | |3 |5 |3 |5 |3 |2 |1 |1 |1 |3 |4 |2 |4 |2 |1 |4 |5 |3 |4 |1 |2. 85 |1. 42 |3 | |14. Receive info. communication to do job | |3 |2 |2 |4 |2 | 2 |4 |4 |4 |4 |3 |2 |3 |4 |5 |3 |3 |3 |2 |4 |3. 15 |0. 93 |4 | |15. Mgr. effective communicator about changes |4 |3 |4 |3 |2 |3 |4 |4 |4 |4 |3 |4 |4 |5 |5 |4 |5 |3 |4 |4 |3. |0. 77 |4 | | Appendix A | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Survey Scores | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Survey Scores | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Question | |Respondent # |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 |6 |7 |8 |9 |10 |11 |12 |13 |14 |15 |16 |17 |18 |19 |20 | |1. Part of a team | | |4 |3 |4 |4 |5 |4 |4 |5 |5 |5 |4 |4 |4 |5 |5 |3 |5 |5 |2 |5 | |2. Involved in decisions affecting work | |2 |3 |3 |3 |4 |3 |5 |5 |4 |4 |4 |4 |3 |4 |5 |3 |4 |2 |2 |5 | |3. Job makes good use of talents abilities | |1 |1 |4 |2 |3 |3 |5 |4 |4 |4 |3 |4 |4 |5 |5 |2 |4 |3 |4 |4 | |4. Feel overwhelmed trying to keep up | |2 |4 |2 |5 |4 |4 |1 |3 |3 |3 |3 |4 |3 |3 |2 |2 |4 |3 |5 |3 | |5. WellPoint provides opportunity for develop. | |4 |1 |3 |2 |4 |4 |4 |5 |4 |3 |3 |2 |3 |4 |4 |3 |4 |3 |4 |4 | |6. Have training to do job effectively | |3 |4 |3 |4 |2 |2 |4 |3 |4 |4 |4 |4 |4 |4 |5 |4 |4 |3 |3 |4 | |7. Receive coaching and feedback | |3 |3 |3 |3 |2 |2 |4 |3 |4 |4 |3 |2 |3 |5 |5 |4 |4 |3 |4 |5 | |8. Limited control over job outcome | |4 |5 |4 |4 |2 |4 |4 |3 |2 |3 |5 |1 |3 |3 |2 |4 |3 |4 |5 |2 | |9. Satisfied with career advancement opportunity | |2 |1 |3 |1 |2 |4 |3 |3 |4 |4 |2 |2 |3 |4 |5 |2 |3 |3 |4 |4 | |10. Healthy work-life balance | | |4 |4 |4 |3 |2 |1 |5 |4 |4 |4 |4 |1 |4 |4 |5 |4 |2 |5 |1 |3 | |11. Regular recognition for contributions | |3 |2 |4 |2 |2 |2 |5 |3 |4 |4 |3 |2 |4 |5 |5 |3 |4 |3 |4 |4 | |12. Paid fairly for work done | | |4 |1 |4 |4 |2 |5 |5 |3 |4 |3 |3 |1 |4 |4 |4 |4 |2 |4 |4 |4 | |13. Dread going to work | | |3 |5 |3 |5 |3 |2 |1 |1 |1 |3 |4 |2 |4 |2 |1 |4 |5 |3 |4 |1 | |14. Receive info. communication to do job | |3 |2 |2 |4 |2 |2 |4 |4 |4 |4 |3 |2 |3 |4 |5 |3 |3 |3 |2 |4 | |15. Mgr. effective communicator about changes |4 |3 |4 |3 |2 |3 |4 |4 |4 |4 |3 |4 |4 |5 |5 |4 |5 |3 |4 |4 | |Sum | | | |46 |42 |50 |49 |41 |45 |58 |53 |55 |56 |51 |39 |53 |61 |63 |49 |56 |50 |52 |56 | |Score (%) | | | |61% |56% |67% |65% |55% |60% |77% |71% |73% |75% |68% |52% |71% |81% |84% |65% |75% |67% |69% |75% | | Appendix A | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Survey Results Sorted by Mean | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Results Sorted by Mean | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Question | |Respondent # |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 |6 |7 |8 |9 |10 |11 |12 |13 |14 |15 |16 |17 |18 |19 |20 |Mean | | |1. Part of a team | | |4 |3 |4 |4 |5 |4 |4 |5 |5 |5 |4 |4 |4 |5 |5 |3 |5 |5 |2 |5 |4. 5 | | | |2. Involved in decisions affecting work | |2 |3 |3 |3 |4 |3 |5 |5 |4 |4 |4 |4 |3 |4 |5 |3 |4 |2 |2 |5 |3. 6 | | | |3. Job makes good use of talents abilities | |1 |1 |4 |2 |3 |3 |5 |4 |4 |4 |3 |4 |4 |5 |5 |2 |4 |3 |4 |4 |3. 45 | | | |4. Feel overwhelmed trying to keep up | |2 |4 |2 |5 |4 |4 |1 |3 |3 |3 |3 |4 |3 |3 |2 |2 |4 |3 |5 |3 |3. 15 | | | |5. WellPoint provides opportunity for develop. | |4 |1 |3 |2 |4 |4 |4 |5 |4 |3 |3 |2 |3 |4 |4 |3 |4 |3 |4 |4 |3. 4 | | | |6. Have training to do job effectively | |3 |4 |3 |4 |2 |2 |4 |3 |4 |4 |4 |4 |4 |4 |5 |4 |4 |3 |3 |4 |3. 6 | | | |7. Receive coaching and feedback | |3 |3 |3 |3 |2 |2 |4 |3 |4 |4 |3 |2 |3 |5 |5 |4 |4 |3 |4 |5 |3. 45 | | | |8. Limited control over job outcome | |4 |5 |4 |4 |2 |4 |4 |3 |2 |3 |5 |1 |3 |3 |2 |4 |3 |4 |5 |2 |3. 35 | | | |9. Satisfied with career advancement opportunity | |2 |1 |3 |1 |2 |4 |3 |3 |4 |4 |2 |2 |3 |4 |5 |2 |3 |3 |4 |4 |2. 95 | | | |10. Healthy work-life balance | | |4 |4 |4 |3 |2 |1 |5 |4 |4 |4 |4 |1 |4 |4 |5 |4 |2 |5 |1 |3 |3. | | | |11. Regular recognition for contributions | |3 |2 |4 |2 |2 |2 |5 |3 |4 |4 |3 |2 |4 |5 |5 |3 |4 |3 |4 |4 |3. 4 | | | |12. Paid fairly for work done | | |4 |1 |4 |4 |2 |5 |5 |3 |4 |3 |3 |1 |4 |4 |4 |4 |2 |4 |4 |4 |3. 45 | | | |13. Dread going to work | | |3 |5 |3 |5 |3 |2 |1 |1 |1 |3 |4 |2 |4 |2 |1 |4 |5 |3 |4 |1 |2. 85 | | | |14. Receive info. communication to do job | |3 |2 |2 |4 |2 |2 |4 |4 |4 |4 |3 |2 |3 |4 |5 |3 |3 |3 |2 |4 |3. 15 | | | |15. Mgr. effective communicator about changes |4 |3 |4 |3 |2 |3 |4 |4 |4 |4 |3 |4 |4 |5 |5 |4 |5 |3 |4 |4 |3. | | | | Appendix A | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Survey Results Sorted by Standard Deviation | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Results Sorted by Standard Deviation | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Question | |Respondent # |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 |6 |7 |8 |9 |10 |11 |12 |13 |14 |15 |16 |17 |18 |19 |20 |St. Dev. | | |1. Part of a team | | |4 |3 |4 |4 |5 |4 |4 |5 |5 |5 |4 |4 |4 |5 |5 |3 |5 |5 |2 |5 |0. 507 | | | |2. Involved in decisions affecting work | |2 |3 |3 |3 |4 |3 |5 |5 |4 |4 |4 |4 |3 |4 |5 |3 |4 |2 |2 |5 |0. 9947 | | | |3. Job makes good use of talents abilities | |1 |1 |4 |2 |3 |3 |5 |4 |4 |4 |3 |4 |4 |5 |5 |2 |4 |3 |4 |4 |1. 191 | | | |4. Feel overwhelmed trying to keep up | |2 |4 |2 |5 |4 |4 |1 |3 |3 |3 |3 |4 |3 |3 |2 |2 |4 |3 |5 |3 |1. 04 | | | |5. WellPoin t provides opportunity for develop. | |4 |1 |3 |2 |4 |4 |4 |5 |4 |3 |3 |2 |3 |4 |4 |3 |4 |3 |4 |4 |0. 9403 | | | |6. Have training to do job effectively | |3 |4 |3 |4 |2 |2 |4 |3 |4 |4 |4 |4 |4 |4 |5 |4 |4 |3 |3 |4 |0. 7539 | | | |7. Receive coaching and feedback | |3 |3 |3 |3 |2 |2 |4 |3 |4 |4 |3 |2 |3 |5 |5 |4 |4 |3 |4 |5 |0. 9445 | | | |8. Limited control over job outcome | |4 |5 |4 |4 |2 |4 |4 |3 |2 |3 |5 |1 |3 |3 |2 |4 |3 |4 |5 |2 |1. 1367 | | | |9. Satisfied with career advancement opportunity | |2 |1 |3 |1 |2 |4 |3 |3 |4 |4 |2 |2 |3 |4 |5 |2 |3 |3 |4 |4 |1. 099 | | | |10. Healthy work-life balance | | |4 |4 |4 |3 |2 |1 |5 |4 |4 |4 |4 |1 |4 |4 |5 |4 |2 |5 |1 |3 |1. 3139 | | | |11. Regular recognition for contributions | |3 |2 |4 |2 |2 |2 |5 |3 |4 |4 |3 |2 |4 |5 |5 |3 |4 |3 |4 |4 |1. 0463 | | | |12. Paid fairly for work done | | |4 |1 |4 |4 |2 |5 |5 |3 |4 |3 |3 |1 |4 |4 |4 |4 |2 |4 |4 |4 |1. 1459 | | | |13. Dread going to work | | |3 |5 |3 |5 |3 |2 |1 |1 |1 |3 |4 |2 |4 |2 |1 |4 |5 |3 |4 |1 |1. 4244 | | | |14. Receive info. communication to do job | |3 |2 |2 |4 |2 |2 |4 |4 |4 |4 |3 |2 |3 |4 |5 |3 |3 |3 |2 |4 |0. 9333 | | | |15. Mgr. effective communicator about changes |4 |3 |4 |3 |2 |3 |4 |4 |4 |4 |3 |4 |4 |5 |5 |4 |5 |3 |4 |4 |0. 7678 | | | | Appendix A | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Survey Results – Percentage of Answers for Each Question | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Percentage of Answers for Each Question | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Question | |Percentage for Each Response | | | | | | |% Ans. 1 |% Ans. 2 |% Ans. 3 |% Ans. 4 |% Ans. 5 |Total | | | | | | | | | | | | |1. I feel that I am part of a team. | | | | | | | |0 |5 |10 |40 |45 |100 | | | | | | | | | | | | |2. I am involved in decisions that affect my work. | | | | | |0 |15 |30 |35 |20 |100 | | | | | | | | | | | | |3. My job makes good use of my talents and abilities. | | | | | | |10 |10 |20 |45 |15 |100 | | | | | | | | | | | | |4. I feel overwhelmed trying to keep up with my responsibilities. | | | | |5 |20 |40 |25 |10 |100 | | | | | | | | | | | | |5. WellPoint provides me with the opportunity for learning and development. | | |5 |10 |30 |50 |5 |100 | | | | | | | | | | | | |6. I have the training to do my job effectively. | | | | | | | |0 |10 |25 |60 |5 |100 | | | | | | | | | | | | |7. I receive coaching and feedback to do my job effectively. | | | | |0 |15 |40 |30 |15 |100 | | | | | | | | | | | | |8. I feel that I have limited control over the outcome of my job. | | | | |5 |20 |25 |35 |15 |100 | | | | | | | | | | | | |9. I am satisfied with my opportunities for career advancement. | | | | |10 |25 |30 |30 |5 |100 | | | | | | | | | | | | |10. I am able to maintain a healthy work-life balance. | | | | | | |15 |10 |10 |50 |15 |100 | | | | | | | | | | | | |11. I regularly receive appropriate recognition for my contributions. | | | | |0 |25 |25 |35 |15 |100 | | | | | | | | | | | | |12. I am paid fairly for the work I do. | | | | | | | |10 |10 |15 |55 |10 |100 | | | | | | | | | | | | |13. I dread going to work, especially on Sunday night. | | | | | | |25 |15 |25 |20 |15 |100 | | | | | | | | | | | | |14. I receive the information and communication I need to do my job effectively. | | |0 |30 |30 |35 |5 |100 | | | | | | | | | | | | |15. My immediate manager does a good job communicating reasons behind changes. | |0 |5 |25 |55 |15 |100 | | | | | | | | | | | | | Appendix B Charts of Results for Each Survey Question Sources Consulted Abbasi, Sami M. Hollman, Kenneth W. (1998). The myth and realities of downsizing. Records Management Quarterly, 32. n2, 31(6). (Document ID: A20776055). Business Editors. (2000). Workforce Growth Averages 5. 9%, Annual AMA Survey Finds. Business Wire. Retrieved from http://findarticles. com/p/articles/mi_m0EiN/is_2000_Oct_25/ai_6632 Canada and the World Backgrounder. (1996). Downsizing or dumbsizing? Canada and the World Backgrounder, 62. n2, 12(1). (Document ID: A18927954). Cummings, Thomas G. Worley, Christopher G. (2005). Organization Development Change. Ohio. Thomson South-Western. See pages 287-297. ) Garnant, Carol W. (2001). Who re-moved my cheese? Responding to staff reductions. Tax Executive, 53. 4, 283. (Document ID: A79052297). Gibbons, Tracy Brenowitz, Randi S. (2001). The Impact of Downsizing on Corporate Culture. Data Center Management. Harris, Rothenberg International, LLC. (2008). Helping Employees with Organizational Change: A Guide for Managers. Retrieved from www. wellpoint. com. Harris, Rothenberg International, LLC. (2008). Managing in Uncertain Times. Retrieved from www. wellpoint. com. Harvey, Don Brown, Donald R. 1996). An Experiential Approach to Organizational Development. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Isabella, Lynn A. (1989). Downsizing: survivors’ assessments. Business Horizons, 32. n3, 35(6). (Document ID: A7739163). Lee, Daniel. (2009). WellPoint Says Economy Could Prompt It t o Cut More Jobs. The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved from http://www. istockanalyst. com/article/viewiStockNews/articleid/3499717. McKinley, William, Sanchez, Carol M. Schick, Allen G. (1995). Organizational downsizing: constraining, cloning, learning. The Academy of Management Executive, 9. 3, 32(13). (Document ID: A17452339). Mishra, Karen E. , Spreitzer, Gretchen M. Mishra Aneil K. (1998). Preserving employee morale during downsizing. Sloan Management Review, 39. n2, 83(13). Retrieved from http://find. galegroup. com/ips/start. do? prodID=IPS. Noer, David M. Healing The Wounds: Overcoming the Trauma of Layoffs and Revitalizing Downsized Organizations. New York. Jossey-Bass Inc. , 1993. (See pages 3, 4, 10-12. ) Whigham-Desir, Marjorie. (1993). Strategies for coping with workplace depression. Black Enterprise, 24. n2, 77(4). (Document ID: A13287127). How to cite Organizational Change: the Effect on Employee Morale and Motivation, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

The highly distinguished British playwright William Shakespeare Essay Example

The highly distinguished British playwright William Shakespeare Essay Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by the highly distinguished British playwright William Shakespeare in 1595. The play dramatizes the fate of two young lovers whose tragic deaths are brought about by feuding between their families and by their own passionate temperaments. Shakespeare is worldly renowned for being the best playwright to ever live and he is best known for his comic and tragic plays such as 12th Night, Midsummer Nights Dream and Romeo and Juliet. Although Shakespeare had a wife and kids that lived in Stratford he left to live in London in around 1588 and by 1592 had attained success as an actor and a playwright.Some things that may have influenced Shakespeare during the writing of Romeo and Juliet are; many people believe that Romeo and Juliet was influenced by one of Shakespeares very own love interests, although it has never been proven. In addition to this it was written in Elizabethan London which was at the height of social activity and the Queen herself was sa id to be a fan of Shakespeares works, but possibly the most prominent thing that was happening around Shakespeare at the time was the Plague which seems to have had some influence on the writing of this play a plague on both your houses.Love and relationships are the main driving force behind the play and Shakespeare presents many types of love during the coarse of the play. Possibly the most intriguing of these is platonic love; this is due to the very interesting pairings it occurs in.Platonic love is presented through several relationships during the coarse of the play; the most notable of these is the relationship between Romeo and Mercutio. The relationship between Romeo and Mercutio is a very engrossing one. From Romeos point of view he holds a strong platonic bond with Mercutio and regards him as a friend who he can trust fully Mercutio pays for this friendship with his life my very friend hath got this mortal wound on my behalf.Romeo whole heartedly believes that Mercutio ha s sacrificed himself for Romeo in the full interests of friendship, Romeo then takes it upon himself to repay this act with the death of Juliets cousin Tybalt; fire and fury be my conduct nowfor Mercutios soul.Mercutios feelings towards Romeo are of an unclear nature there is no doubt that Marcutio is a very kind friend and confidante of Romeo, but throughout the play some scenes and speeches imply a love interest from Mercutios point of view. One such example of this is when Mercutio speaks very much against women during the famous Queen Mab speech oer ladies with blisters plagues. The use of the word plague especially shows Mercutios ill feeling towards Ladies because when Shakespeare wrote this there was a plague epidemic in London.Another prominent platonic relationship in the play is that of Romeo, Juliet and Friar Lawrence, Romeo and Juliet relyheavily on Friar Lawrence we get our first glimpse of this when Romeo goes to him to ask him to marry him and Juliet but this I pray that thou consent to marry us to-day. At first he is a minor character but as the play goes on and for both Romeo and Juliet a list of confidantes is wearing thin he becomes there last true friend, this is epitomized when Juliet goes to visit him for the final time tell me not Friar, that thou hearst of this unless thou tell me how to prevent it.Another type of relationship that is an important factor during the course of the play is filial love; filial the Montagues parents towards their son Romeo initially show love. This is because Lady Montague is worried about the perpetuate absence of Romeo and questions Benvolio about it o where is Romeo see you him today? this evident worrying shows a very caring side of an otherwise cold hard women.Another very good filial relationship is that of Juliet and the Nurse, as Juliet and Lady Capulet have never been very close the more prominent mother figure has always fallen to the nurse. The nurse also sees Juliet as a daughter and this is fir st evident when the nurse says I could tell her age unto an hour this shows that Juliet means a lot to nurse so much that she knows exactly when she was born. Juliet has always told the nurse her secrets and she has been a very close and well trusted confidante but later in the play she later realizes that she may not be completely faithful to her when during an argument between Juliet and Capulet she sides with Capulet over JulietMarry I will and this is wisely doneo most wicked fiend.Juliet has also not always had a great relationship with her father; this becomes available to see shortly after Tybalts death when Capulet arranges for Juliet to marry Paris. This is meant as a kind gesture a sudden day of joy but as Juliet is married to Romeo she has to refute this kind gesture which makes Capulet angry hang thee young disobedient wretch Capulet threatens to disown her and hits her which shows a very vicious side to him.The most important relationship in the play is that of Romance that is shared between Romeo and Juliet, when we are first introduced to Romeo he is love sick after being dumped by Rosaline sad hours seem long. Benvolio eventually talks him into sneaking into a ball at the Capulets house, which is where their epic love journey starts.Romeo and Juliet first meet at the ball and they use a lot of poetical language laced with beautiful imagery. Thye talk of saints, devotion and holiness, all of which can be linked with religion, marriage, eternity and romantic love. This scene shows a very fickle side to Romeos character because one minute he is talking about sweet Rosaline and the next he is in love with Juliet who he only met that night.Later that night Romeo sneaks back into the Capulets yard and proposes to Juliet th exchange of thy loves faithful vow for mine. This is an exciting scene because we know that Romeo has snuck into Capulets mansion and if he is caught he will be killed.In my view the most important scene of Romeo and Juliets relati onship comes shortly after Tybalts death and Romeos banishment when Romeo visits her for the night, after the night they arrange to make a plan for them to meet and live together after all has died down. As Romeo is leaving Juliet has a premonition that she sees him dead o God I have an il-divininng soul, methinks I see thee now, thou art so low, as one dead in bottom of a tomb, this is the first time within the play that a true sense of ill fated destiny is put across by the characters.Romeo and Juliets relationship comes to a dramatic end when Romeo takes poison to kill himself after hearing news of Juliets death tonight I shall rest with thee not knowing that it is all part of a plan to bring them back together, and as he takes the poison Juliet wakes only to see him die within her arms thus with a kiss I die. Juliet then slays herself so that they can be together and that ends Romeo and Juliets tragic tail of love.Jack Sponder Explore the ways in which Shakespeare presents Filia l Platonic and Romantic Love in Romeo and Juliet

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Free Essays on Yeah, Right, Whatever!

Yeah, Right, Whatever! A young teenage girl dressed all in black turned the corner. She had chains hanging down the side of her black, baggy jeans. What’s the first thought that went through your mind? Have you ever seen a nicely dressed young lady surrounded by a group of teenagers who have multiple piercings and green hair? Did you think that it was probably a group of thugs or even worse? Have you sat down and talked with a teenager lately? If so, you may have understood what he or she was talking about, but it’s entirely possible that you did not. With having said all this, what do you think when you see teenagers today? Teenagers are stereotyped for many reasons. Some of the most common reasons are their appearance, their friends, and even the way they talk. Crystal, my 16-year-old daughter, is obsessed with the color black. She always has been. 75% of her clothing is black, she has several bottles of black nail polish, and she even has two black cowboy hats. This in itself is not really a problem for us, but for other’s it seems to be a major problem. For example, when she was in seventh grade at Snyder Junior High the assistant principal had a very low opinion of her. This was mainly due to the fact the she wore black all the time. It got so bad that she finally started accusing Crystal of being gothic and into devil worshipping. If she had really known her, there is no way that she could have ever thought that she was into anything like that. She just assumed this because of the way she dressed. Crystal hasn’t only been stereotyped because of the way she dresses, but also because of whom she chooses as her friends. Several of her friends have body piercings and strange hair colors. Although Crystal has light brown hair and no body piercings, when she is with her friends she is treated as a freak. One day Crystal was in Wal-Mart with two of her friends. They were in the jewelry department looking at... Free Essays on Yeah, Right, Whatever! Free Essays on Yeah, Right, Whatever! Yeah, Right, Whatever! A young teenage girl dressed all in black turned the corner. She had chains hanging down the side of her black, baggy jeans. What’s the first thought that went through your mind? Have you ever seen a nicely dressed young lady surrounded by a group of teenagers who have multiple piercings and green hair? Did you think that it was probably a group of thugs or even worse? Have you sat down and talked with a teenager lately? If so, you may have understood what he or she was talking about, but it’s entirely possible that you did not. With having said all this, what do you think when you see teenagers today? Teenagers are stereotyped for many reasons. Some of the most common reasons are their appearance, their friends, and even the way they talk. Crystal, my 16-year-old daughter, is obsessed with the color black. She always has been. 75% of her clothing is black, she has several bottles of black nail polish, and she even has two black cowboy hats. This in itself is not really a problem for us, but for other’s it seems to be a major problem. For example, when she was in seventh grade at Snyder Junior High the assistant principal had a very low opinion of her. This was mainly due to the fact the she wore black all the time. It got so bad that she finally started accusing Crystal of being gothic and into devil worshipping. If she had really known her, there is no way that she could have ever thought that she was into anything like that. She just assumed this because of the way she dressed. Crystal hasn’t only been stereotyped because of the way she dresses, but also because of whom she chooses as her friends. Several of her friends have body piercings and strange hair colors. Although Crystal has light brown hair and no body piercings, when she is with her friends she is treated as a freak. One day Crystal was in Wal-Mart with two of her friends. They were in the jewelry department looking at...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Stone Tools Then and Now

Stone Tools Then and Now We all know the cartoon of the cave man bearing his stone axe. How crude life must have been, we may think, when there was no metal. But stone is a worthy servant. In fact, stone tools have been found that are more than 2 million years old. This means that stone technology is not something Homo sapiens invented- we inherited it from earlier hominid species. And stone tools are still around. I dont mean stone used for construction, but things you can hold in your hand and do stuff with. Stone Grinding Tools Start with grinding. One stone tool thats still in common kitchen use is the mortar and pestle, better than anything for turning things to a powder or paste. (Those are made of marble or agate.) And maybe you seek out stoneground flour for your baking needs. (Grindstones are made of quartzite and similar rocks.) Perhaps the highest use of stone today along these lines is in the tough, heavy granite rollers used for grinding and conching chocolate. And lets not forget chalk, the soft stone used for writing on blackboards or sidewalks. Edged Stone Tools But what makes me light up is edged stone tools. If you spend enough time in suitable country, one day youll pick up an ancient arrowhead. The utter coolness of the technology really comes home when you look at one of these stone tools close up, like some of the delicate points at arrowheads.com. The technique of making them is called knapping (with a silent K), and it involves striking stones with harder stones, or highly controlled pressure flaking with pieces of antler and similar materials. It takes years of practice, and you cut your hands a lot until you become an expert. The type of stone used is typically chert. Chert is a form of quartz with an exceedingly fine grain. Different types are called flint, agate, and chalcedony. A similar rock, obsidian, forms from high-silica lava and is the best knapping stone of all. These stone tools- points, blades, scrapers, axes and more- are often the only evidence we have from archaeological sites. They are cultural fossils, and like true fossils, they have been collected and classified for many years around the world. Modern geochemical techniques like neutron activation analysis, coupled with growing databases  of the sources of toolmaking stone, are allowing us to trace the movements of prehistoric peoples and the patterns of trade among them. Stone Tools Today Another thing that makes me light up is knowing that this technology is being revived and preserved by a bunch of fanatic knappers. Theyll show you how at a local knap-in, theyll sell you videotapes and books, and of course theyll put their passion on the web. The best knapping websites, I think, are Knappers Anonymous and flintknapping.com, but if you want to follow the arrowhead trail to the scientific end of things, start with the lithics page from Kris Hirst, the About Archaeology Guide. The knapper/artist Errett Callahan has devoted his career to reproducing all the ancient tools, then moving beyond them. He and other practitioners have brought this technology into what he calls the Post-Neolithic period. His fantasy knives will make your jaws drop. PS: Obsidian scalpels are the sharpest in the world, and plastic surgeons rely on them more and more for operations where scarring must be minimized. Truly, the stone edge is here to stay.